Show cover of The Cunning of Geist

The Cunning of Geist

Gregory Novak explores philosophy, psychology, and science with an emphasis on Hegel. For seekers and scholars alike.

Tracks

081 - The Fermi Paradox - Are We Alone in the Universe? Can Rationality Ever be Alone?
It is estimated that over 2 billion stars in our own Milky Way galaxy have planets orbiting them that could sustain life.  Are we on planet Earth a lottery winner, a one in 2 billion chance for establishing life and intelligent beings?  The odds suggest life exists elsewhere.  However, although it took billions of years to life on Earth to evolve to where we are today,  there are stars are much older that our own sun.  Several billion years older in fact.  Why no evidence of extraterrestrial life?  No radio signals, no unmanned probes, no hard evidence of visitations.  Why not?  Could we be alone?Hegel teaches that rationality and Spirit is paramount, what is real. If so, it most be universal, across the cosmos.  Are we the only place where it has actualized?  This episode explores.  Support the Show.
29:59 4/14/24
080 - Is There a God? - Creation, Becoming, and the Fate of the Universe
"Creation ex nihlilo (creation out of nothing) or "Ex nihilo nihil fit" (from nothing comes from nothing)?The notion of a creator God is fundamental to Western religions.  But is it true?  The opening of Genesis in the Hebrew Bible, studied so long and hard by the Kabbalists suggests so, and the Big Bang theory gave reason for many to believe the cosmological argument for God (everything that began to exist has a cause). But the newest scientific data suggests something preceded the Big Bang.  And in our secular age, many prefer to follow the science, rightly so.Planet Earth, the sun, our galaxy, and the universe itself, like all of us, is headed for the graveyard.  But cycles of nature appear everywhere. Could this also be true of the universe itself?  Does the universe resurrect? This episode explores the question in detail.  Support the Show.
22:37 2/25/24
079 - Using Hegel's Triad as a Model for Success
Hegel's "triad" of Being, Nothing, and Becoming are central to his ontology.  And it can also be used as a framework for personal achievement.  This episode explains how. The Being/Nothing/Becoming dialectic comes first in Hegel's Science of Logic, but it also presents the pattern for his overall project of Mind (Idea), Nature, and Spirit (Geist).  And it is just this framework that one must use in pushing to new heights of success in life.   The basic approach is goal setting (Mind), assessing the path to take, including the obstacles to overcome (Nature), and boldly embarking on one's action plan in the world (Spirit).   The correspondence of Hegel's triad  to real life achievement is the subject of this episode. Support the Show.
21:58 1/28/24
078 - Jung's Synchronicity: Demonstrating the Mental/Physical Unity of the Cosmos
Hegel famously said  in his Phenomenology of Spirit, "Everything turns on grasping and expressing the True, not as Substance, but equally as Subject." (Miiler trans., ¶17).  That the true - truth - is equally substance and subject.  He makes this explicitly clear in the following statement, “What seems to take place outside it, to be an activity directed against it, is its own doing, its own activity; and substance shows that it is in reality subject” (Ibid, ¶37).Meaningful coincidences, Jung's synchronicity, are a demonstration of this truth.  And the mediation of the mental and material takes place in the immediacy of the present moment.  As Hegel said, "There is nothing, nothing in heaven, or in nature or in mind or anywhere else which does not equally contain both immediacy and mediation" (Science of Logic, Miller trans., pg. 68).Episode 78 explores this important notion.Support the Show.
24:32 12/28/23
077 - The Journey Not the Destination: The Case for Universal Purposeful Evolution
Does Spirit evolve?  How about God?And what exactly does the term panentheism mean?This episode takes a deep dive into process philosophy, process theology, and the evolutionary nature of "becoming."  The pioneer work of Charles Hartshorne, Alfred North Whitehead, Charles Sanders Peirce, and of course Hegel, all in a way process philosophers, is addressed. Support the Show.
20:11 11/19/23
076 - Language Games: Wittgenstein, Hegel, and the Split in Philosophy
Wittgenstein is often mention as the most influential philosopher of the 20th century.  His focus on the meaning of words became an integral part of the so-called "Analytic" branch of the discipline.   The later Wittgenstein contended that words are but tools, defined by their use within the context of the “language game” of the arena they are used, which is societally based and can evolve.  One of these sandboxes is philosophy, as well as science and religion.  And the language of one space does not necessarily hold water in another.  That there is not one underlying true meaning of the word beneath all of the different areas;  only how a word or phrase is used in context of the realm of "game" in which it is being used.But cannot words be used to point outside of the realm in which they are used to Spirit, a higher power and purpose, and to the truly infinite?  And isn't this the purpose of art, religion and philosophy?  This episode explores.   Support the Show.
21:46 10/22/23
075 - A Matter of Life & Death: How Philosophy Underpins Politics, Law, Science, and Morality.
Is philosophy just mental masturbation?  Nothing but air?Many today see no value in philosophy because there seems to be little agreement among philosophers on anything, and much of what they say seems to have little or no impact on one's life, or society in general.  Is this the case?An examination of the major pillars upon which society stands - political systems, the law, science, and its moral base - shows just the opposite.  Holding each of these institutions up is a philosophical position.  In most cases, these are stances that have been analyzed for over two thousand years by the likes of Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Hobbes, Locke, Hume, and Hegel. As the 20th century demonstrated, the philosophy that nations choose to embrace can lead to the death of millions. And as citizens of the world, we do not have to blindly accept the doctrines that are handed us. We can, as Steve Job said, "change it, influence it, mold it."  This episode shows the major impact philosophy has had on all aspects of life.  Support the Show.
32:58 9/23/23
074 - Is the Unconscious Mind Real or Fantasy? - B.F. Skinner, Freud, & Hegel
The behaviorism of B.F. Skinner took the psychology world by storm.  His 1971 book "Beyond Freedom and Dignity" was hailed as the most important psychological publication of the 20th century.  And this was from someone who denied mind and free will. It was an attempt to dignify psychology as a hard science, based on experiments and what can be observed, rather than what people think or feel, a direct contradiction to the root meaning of word psychology - "a study of mind."  He claimed that reason, values, concepts,  judgment, and purpose simply do not exist.  To him, all actions are based on conditioning. Hegel laid the groundwork for the unconscious, calling it soul, and saying it is from what consciousness itself comes.  Famed psychologists Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built on this with their brilliant conceptions - the reality of the unconscious mind on Freud's part and the collective unconscious from Jung.  This episode discusses all this as well as Novak's personal interactions with Skinnerism in the university setting of the early 1970s. Support the Show.
22:36 8/27/23
073 - Who Needs Philosophy? - You Do!
Developing one's own philosophy of life can be one of the most rewarding experiences. ll can serve as the basis for a productive and happy experience in this world.  What many don’t realize is that our beliefs, values, and actions are based on a grounding in a particular philosophy, whether we understand it or not. Examining the underpinnings of our concept of self and the world can be a fruitful exercise. It is better to actively choose one's philosophy of life rather than have it handed to us by others, or by unconsciously absorbing it from the environment of family and friends.  The default position often produces conflicting and random direction, which can lead to doubt, frustration, a lack of fulfillment, and loss of meaning in one's life. This podcast episode demonstrates how we are handed a philosophical outlook starting in childhood, continuing through our education, and examines the current paradigms upon which this pedagogy is based. It discusses key philosophical questions that should be actively pondered, and dives into current topics such as sexual orientation, political affiliation, identity groups, and individualism vs. collectivism. Lastly it is shown how many of the casual cliches we use in speaking are actually statements of profound philosophical positions.Support the Show.
31:38 7/30/23
072 - Pillars of the Collective Unconscious: How Jung's Feminine & Masculine Archetypes Manifest in the Psyche and Brain
This episode explores psychologist Carl Jung's conception of the psyche, from the ego and the persona it shows to the world, down through the personal  and collective shadow, finally reaching the two core archetypes of the collective unconscious - the anima and the animus.  This fundamental polarity is seen in myths and narratives throughout the ages, including the yin/yang symbol, heaven and earth of the Bible, Hegel's being and nothing, and even the left and right brain hemispheres, with it two distinct approaches to thinking.While this polarity is often expressed as masculine/feminine, it is not dependent on the body, but on a host of psychological attributes that differ in their application.  The anima is more receptive, social, and connecting, whereas the animus is more divisive and abstract.   The aspects we identify with and put forward mean their opposites are kept below in the unconscious.  But both sides exist in all of us, whether implicit or explicit.  This episode explores the collective unconscious from several standpoints, including the mystical tree of life from the Kabbalah.  Support the Show.
33:15 6/27/23
071 - Perception & Memory - the Mind/Body Link: A Look to Bergson, Jung, & Hegel
The duality of Mind and Body has been debated for millennia.  This has resulted in two polarized camps - Realists vs. Idealists.  Realists contend that there is a world existing out there whether we are here or not, whether we are observing it or not, whether we are thinking about it or not.  Idealists contend that ultimately only Mind exists, and the physical world around us is just an illusion, an unreal fantasy of the Mind.But there is a third camp.  Many mistakenly classify Hegel as an Idealist,  However, he actually proposed a tripartite system with Mind and Nature coming together and evolving in one process of Becoming.  He referred to this as the historical advance of Spirit.  Interestingly, Bergson postulated a way that Mind and Body are linked through perception and memory.  As did Jung, with his collective unconscious.  This episode explores this topic in depth.    Support the Show.
30:14 6/2/23
070 - The "I" in Me & You: Identity, Freedom, and Oneness
Can't we all just get along?  The world today is increasing fractious.  The Electronic Age has fueled a return to tribalism, as the individualistic linear emphasis of the print age gave way to finding identity though emotionally connected groups.  And these groups are often based more on hatred of the "other" than on what they stand for themselves. What can be done?  As Hegel and others have pointed out, it starts with a recognition of Spirit within us all.  A freedom that humans alone can call their own.  And without this recognition in others, we cannot know it is within us.  This episode reviews the issue from different standpoints, include a look at the Lordship/Bondage and Beautiful Soul portions of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, as well as Žižek's Hegelian take on forgiveness. Support the Show.
25:08 5/7/23
069 - Artificial Intelligence (AI): Oxymoron or the Next Level of Consciousness?
Sundar Pichai, CEO of Google parent company Alphabet, has said  that artificial intelligence (AI) could have a more profound effect on humanity than fire and electricity.   Quite a statement.New AI technologies are being produced, Including ChatGPT, that are conversational and can write better and communicate more clearly than most people.  And they provide fast, almost immediate, answers to any question.  While it is has not yet been perfected, and flaws have been noticed, the question has been raised as to whether such programs can self-learn on their own, and program themselves.  And importantly, when fully developed, whether they should be considered conscious entities.  Like a human being.   There seems to be two camps here. One group believes that it AI is just an algorithm at the end of day, and does not possess anything beyond the information and formulas put into it by the programmers.  The other group feels we are on the verge of a creating a digital super intelligence, a digital god. What has philosophy and psychology to say about this?  This episode explores. Support the Show.
33:14 4/19/23
068 - Jung's Personality Types & Hegel: Operating Manual for the Mind
The great psychologist Carl Jung was a leading pioneer in psychological type analysis.  In fact, he coined the terms "extrovert" and "introvert."  His work spawned a whole industry of personality analysis which is as strong today as ever.  And key to his psychological type system was his recognition of Intuition, or the "small still voice within."  This function has direct correspondence to Hegel's notion of Spirit.  In a 1933 lecture on proto-psychologists in philosophy, Jung thought that had a scientific study of psychology existed back in Hegel’s time, Hegel would probably have been a psychologist.   This episode reviews Jung's work, relates it to Hegel, and offer a new dimension based on Jung's work - the Creative/Receptive.  Support the Show.
23:46 3/27/23
067 - Dawkins' Selfish Gene vs. Hegel's Geist: No Contest!
Biologist Richard Dawkins is the poster child for the materialist doctrine and the new atheism.  His paradigm boils down to a mechanical replicator, that somehow appeared by chance, which no one can explain how (a miracle?), that goes by the name "gene."  He sees us all as mere robots, zombies, propagating the gene's replication.  The materialist doctrine stands on three assumptions - that all is matter, that the laws of nature are fixed, with us from the beginning, and that there is no inherent purpose in matter.  While this may be true for matter, what about Mind? Materialists use their doctrine as a sword against religion and philosophy.  Yet their paradigm is misguided.  There is a huge difference between being true and not being proven false.  Hegel showed how matter and mind are combined, both a part of Geist, Spirit, and are one fundamentally.  This episode explores the many problems with the pure materialist doctrine. Support the Show.
32:34 2/26/23
066 - Kierkegaard vs. Hegel: The Existentialism/Absolute Idealism Debate
19th century Danish theologian and philosopher Søren Kierkegaard was a towering figure not only in philosophy and religion, but in psychology as well.  He is commonly considered to be the father of Existentialism, with the importance he place on individual subjectivity in finding meaning and truth.  He was also a fierce critic of Hegel.  By examining the differences between the two, one can hopefully see the distinctiveness of each.  This podcast episode will examine two main themes of Kierkegaard, that of subjectivity and the "leap of faith," to show where some commonalities exist, where their difference was a matter of emphasis, and where there exists an unbridgeable gap between the two.  I hope to show how their differences cannot be reduced to the old "individual vs. society" or "head vs. the heart" debate; but what I believe to be a faulty/incomplete portrayal of Hegel's philosophy by Kierkegaard.  Support the Show.
28:50 2/8/23
065 - America's New Thought Movement and Hegel
America went through a profound spiritual awakening in the 19th century, most commonly referred to as "New Thought."  Many leaders at this time credited Hegel  for laying the groundwork.  This episode explores several of the early developments in America, but such movements have also occurred across the globe at different times in various cultures. And there are many themes of this movement that echo Hegel, including: - There exists Infinite Intelligence, or the Absolute Idea as Hegel calls it,  - There is divinity or Spirit within each person,  - Mind and Nature are linked in Spirit, - Aligning your thoughts with Spirit is beneficial to oneself and the world, - Progress of Spirit in the world is historical. This New Thought movement continues today in various forms and incarnations the world over, and it has never been stronger.  And Hegel was one of its earliest pioneers.  But there is still much work to do.  This episode explores. Support the Show.
25:07 1/15/23
064 - Free Speech & Society: the Internet Age & Hegel
Free speech is of course linked to freedom.  And freedom is the cornerstone of Hegel's philosophy.  Today free speech is an issue with respect to social media platforms, which are used by literally billions of people over the world.  Yes billions.  And who exactly controls what can be said on these platforms?  Up to now it has been a handful of executives.  And some claim that free speech has been curtailed to a degree favoring the views of these executives.  Most nation-states have laws that govern the limits of free speech, such as libel, fraud, incitement, and sedition.  Do these laws apply the Internet?  Hegel had things to say about free speech.  In his Elements of the Philosophy of Right he discusses it, and notes that it is the state that gives freedom to individuals, and if the state is destroyed, so is freedom, including free speech.  But he saw the problems inherent in democracies of competing factions.  And these problems are still being worked out some 200 years later.This episode explores the issues surrounding free speech from an historical, philosophical, and Hegelian point of view, in light of the new Internet environment. Support the Show.
27:25 12/17/22
063 - Spirit: Hegel's God? An Exploration.
The word "spirit" has so many connotations. Per the thesaurus: character, courage, energy, enthusiasm, essence, heart, humor, life, mood, morale, quality, resolve, temperament, vigor, vitality, warmth, and will. Hegel had a different interpretation: God.  And he said it as clear as day.  He defines God as the timeless Absolute Idea, the idea of ideas, self-thinking thought.  But it doesn't end there.  The Absolute Idea freely others itself in Nature, and enters this finite world as Spirit.  It does so to become actual, real, not just abstract truth.  This episode reviews the etymology of the word "spirit" across different cultures - Greek, Latin, Hebrew, even Proto-Indo-European, up to the present day.  And then explores how spirit relates to Hegel's tripartite system, and finds its fulfillment in what Hegel calls True Infinity.  Support the Show.
28:11 11/22/22
062 - What's Your Paradigm? Comparing Kuhn's Philosophy of Science with Hegel
The term "paradigm "and "paradigm shift" were made famous by Thomas Kuhn in his landmark 1962 book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions". Steven Covey describes a paradigm as "frames of reference, worldviews, . . through which we see everyone and everything, including ourselves.  . They affect the way we interpret what we see and experience, and how we interact and relate with others.”The current naturalistic materialism paradigm of science (and much of the educated world) is beginning to show anomalies, particular in physics where the micro does not jibe with the marco.  And quantum physics itself does not have a consistently accepted theory underlying it. Hegel's philosophy has been called "a total system of the world, which included not only physics and the sciences, religion, ethics, but even a history of the world; . .  It was truly a theory of everything— We could really say this was the last great system,” (T. Cahoone).  Does Hegel's framework represent the true paradigm we should be moving toward?  This episode explores. Support the Show.
26:04 10/31/22
061 - Is the Universe Cyclical? - The Big Bang, Penrose, & Hegel
Hegel saw the Absolute metaphorically as a "circle of circles" (SL, pg. 842, Miller trans.).  He also said philosophy itself "forms a circle" (PR, Wood, ed.,  Nisbet trans., pg. 26, ¶2).Yet religions sees a creation event in our past, and modern science has embraced the Big Bang as the beginning of it all.  The universe is expanding and current theories show an eventual fizzle out into a "heat death."  Nothing will survive.  The end.  Full stop. Yet there is another scientific theory, proposed by Nobel prize winning physicist Roger Penrose, that suggests that this is all part of a cyclical process.  From the "death" of the finite universe a state of "infinity" will be reached and a new Big Bang will emerge.  Any correspondence here to Hegel's circle?  This episode explores.  Support the Show.
25:18 10/11/22
060 - Bergson, Duration, Time, and Hegel
It is said that French philosopher Henri Bergson was the best known philosopher in his day during the early 20th century.  In fact, when giving a lecture in New York City, he caused the first traffic jam the city had ever seen.  Although presently he is less prominent, there was much reason for his positive perception back then in philosophy circles. His concepts of duration, intuition, élan vital, and memory took on the established determinism of the day.  And Bergsonism is just as relevant as ever, as unfortunately naturalistic materialism remains the solidly entrenched dominant position.  He was even one of the very few philosophers bold enough to broach the subject of comedy (Hegel also bravely ventured into this territory as well).  All this is reviewed in the current episode.  Plus some thoughts on Bergson by my comedian daughter Jacqueline. Support the Show.
28:01 9/18/22
059 - Meditation, Nothingness, Buddhism, and Hegel
To me, the goal of meditation is to escape the left-brain world of analyzing, breaking things down, either/or judgmental thinking, and to get in touch with life itself.   Thoughts tend to come to the foreground, but there remains a background.  In meditation, thoughts can be viewed like passing clouds in the sky, and the goal is to experience the sky, and not get hung up on the clouds. The notion of Being and Nothing is central to Hegel's philosophy.  And Hegel is clear - focusing on just "being" and not "nothingness" as well, misses the point.  Becoming is the truth, which contains both being and nothing as moments.  For Being to "be there" (determinate) it must contain both notions.   The goal of meditation is not to ignore or eliminate being, or thought.  It is just to spend some time each day to quietly sense the complete picture, both the sky and the clouds.   This episode explores meditation from this standpoint, with commentary on Buddhism as well, noting that equating Buddhism with a nihilism of pure nothingness is a mistake.  Support the Show.
22:42 8/30/22
058 - Hegel's Becoming: What it Means, Why it's Unique, and Why it Matters
"Becoming" is addressed very early in Hegel's Science of Logic.  And it provides a foundation for all that follows in his project.  But the concept of becoming is much more than an abstract philosophical term.  It is the foundation of growth, evolution, and all development processes.  Nietzsche recognized how important Hegel’s concept of becoming was.  Hegel of course preceded Darwin,  and Nietzsche knew that Hegel, with his notion of becoming, had planted the seed for the idea of evolution among European thinkers when he claimed “No Hegel, no Darwin” (Gay Science §357),  And Nietzsche goes on in same page to say that the notion of becoming, as a process of conceptual development, is a superior notion to just looking at "what is” in isolation.  This has direct correspondence to the left brain/right brain dichotomy discussed here so often.  As well as to the meanings of the German words "verstand" (common understanding) and "vernunft" (holistic reasoning).  This episode explores Hegel's notion of "becoming" from several standpoints. Support the Show.
22:42 8/16/22
057 - Why Do Bad Things Happen to Good People, & Vice-Versa? - Hegel's Theodicy
"Good and evil" is a core philosophic and religious issue.  Perhaps the most important issue.  Where did this concept originate?  Why do we often see God, or Karma, as seeking  retribution and causing our misfortunes?The tree of the knowledge of good and evil is one of the oldest, if not the oldest myth out there to explain what is going on.  And there are two different takes on this.  Traditional religion says, in the Old Testament, that our eating of the forbidden fruit is the cause of our separation from God; and if one believes in the New Testament, Jesus was the reconciliation and now we were forgiven. But Hegel has a different interpretation.  This episode explores.  Support the Show.
20:32 7/24/22
056 - Is There a Storehouse of Memory? Exploring Plato, Hegel, and Jung
Is it easier to do Sunday's crossword puzzle on Monday morning?  If so, the Collective Memory may be the reason.  Many believe minds are joined at a very deep level.  Hegel taught that "Substance is Subject."  Not only minds but matter as well.  But Hegel's project is more:  subject is also Spirit, and Spirit is an historical process.  Enter Memory.This episode explores memory from several standpoints in addition to Hegel 's - Plato's reincarnation and anamnesis, Jung's collective unconscious, Theosophy's Akashic records, and Rupert Sheldrake's morphic resonance.  Support the Show.
22:54 7/6/22
055 - Will Computers Ever be Alive? - Hegel, Self-Reference, and A.I.
In the film "2001: A Space Odyssey," H.A.L., an artificial intelligence character, loses its mind and begins killing people.  Did H.A.L. act on his own accord?  Interesting question.Everyday we hear more and more how artificial intelligence programs will soon be the equivalent of human beings and perhaps even smarter.  Is this true?Some theorists believe Hegel's dialectical approach, when added to a computer's binary operation, can provide a degree of self awareness to the machine.  But is this true self-awareness or just simulated self-awareness?This episode explores these questions and more. Support the Show.
24:44 6/18/22
054 - Can Hegel Save Us from a Brutal Return to Tribalism?
The Electronic Revolution has dramatically changed how the world receives and processes information.  The previous print revolution helped usher in the Enlightenment, the Scientific Revolution, nation-states, and individual rights through its emphasis on visual, linear thinking, i.e. left-brain thinking.However, the Electronic Age reintroduced the audio factor to mass communications beginning with radio.  This was followed by television bringing a return of both audio and visual in one package.  And this resulted in a step toward a nouveau-tribalism, harkening back to ancient tribal societies where the spoken word interacted with nature in one environment.The Internet added more fuel to the fire.  This has meant, among an increasing percentage of citizens, a loss of the ability to find much meaning in a big tent nation-state.  The fragmentation and specialization of media and politics has put identity groups, "tribes," as a driving force today in many places.  History has shown that tribal societies often fought brutally for recognition, and the new tribes are increasingly doing so today.  Hegel, a pre-electronic literary man of letters, foresaw this problem.  And I believe his speculative philosophy, one that recognizes identity within differences, with its focus on the whole (right-brain) as well as the parts (left brain) can provide a useful guide for these trying times.   Support the Show.
35:08 5/31/22
053 - Do We Have Free Will? Reason and Evolution Suggest "Yes" (with Qualifications)
A question for the ages -  are we free?A recent survey of over 1,700 philosophers worldwide found that over 50% hold a compatibilist view, that both determinism and free will co-exist.  Hegel was a champion of freedom and made it the cornerstone of his philosophy.  He also recognized that much of our lives are also pre-determined.  In this episode I will argue that free-will  occurs in the present moment, where we have some degree of freedom to choose between alternative paths that we can envision.  Only humans have this capability of thought to look to the future.   Without  free-will, the universe becomes dead, with no purpose or no rationality behind it.   As Charles Peirce as well as Hegel have posited, this freedom is baked into the core of the cosmos itself.   The current episode discusses this important question from several different standpoints, including time, randomness, reason, purpose, and evolution.Transcript is available on the podcast's Facebook page, @cunningofgeist.Support the Show.
26:19 5/15/22
052 - Is Meaning Fundamental to the Universe? Synchronicity, Semiotics, Logotherapy, & Hegel
We all have experienced synchronicity, where causally unconnected events have a unique meaning to us.  Psychologist Carl Jung proposed that there was indeed an acausal connecting principle behind such occurrences. In fact, "meaning" may indeed be fundamental to the cosmos.  American philosopher C.S. Peirce believed it was so.  And Hegel did as well, epitomized by his famous dictum, "Substance is subject."  Even on an existential basis, many have argued that one must create their own meaning and purpose in life in order to thrive.  One such example is the best-selling book "Man's Search for Meaning" by psychiatrist Viktor Frankl about his experiences in a Nazi concentration camp and what he learned about survival. He developed a therapeutic approach called Logotherapy based on this.  This podcast explores this question from the persective of Jung, Peirce, Frankl, and Hegel. Support the Show.
24:00 5/1/22