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Emergency Medical Minute

Emergency Medical Minute is medicine's most prolific podcast. Geared towards physicians, nurses and paramedics! Tune in weekly for real, raw and relevant medical education.

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Episode 900: Ketamine Dosing
Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Ketamine is an NMDA receptor antagonist with a wide variety of uses in the emergency department. To dose ketamine remember the numbers 0.3, 1, and 3. Pain dose For acute pain relief administer 0.3 mg/kg of ketamine IV over 10-20 minutes (max of 30 mg). Note: There is evidence that a lower dose of 0.1-0.15 mg/kg can be just as effective. Dissociative dose To use ketamine as an induction agent for intubation or for procedural sedation administer 1 mg/kg IV over 1-2 minutes. IM for acute agitation If a patient is out of control and a danger to themselves or others, administer 3 mg/kg intramuscularly (max 500 mg). If you are giving IM ketamine it has to be in the concentrated 100 mg/ml vial. Additional pearls Pushing ketamine too quickly can cause laryngospasm. Between .3 and 1 mg/kg is known as the recreational dose. You want to avoid this range because this is where ketamine starts to pick up its dissociative effects and can cause unpleasant and intense hallucinations. This is colloquially known as being in the “k-hole”. References Gao, M., Rejaei, D., & Liu, H. (2016). Ketamine use in current clinical practice. Acta pharmacologica Sinica, 37(7), 865–872. https://doi.org/10.1038/aps.2016.5 Lin, J., Figuerado, Y., Montgomery, A., Lee, J., Cannis, M., Norton, V. C., Calvo, R., & Sikand, H. (2021). Efficacy of ketamine for initial control of acute agitation in the emergency department: A randomized study. The American journal of emergency medicine, 44, 306–311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.04.013 Stirling, J., & McCoy, L. (2010). Quantifying the psychological effects of ketamine: from euphoria to the k-Hole. Substance use & misuse, 45(14), 2428–2443. https://doi.org/10.3109/10826081003793912 Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMS II
02:35 4/22/24
Episode 899: Thrombolytic Contraindications
Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Thrombolytic therapy (tPA or TNK) is often used in the ED for strokes Use of anticoagulants with INR > 1.7 or  PT >15 Warfarin will reliably increase the INR Current use of Direct thrombin inhibitor or Factor Xa inhibitor  aPTT/PT/INR are insufficient to assess the degree of anticoagulant effect of Factor Xa inhibitors like apixaban (Eliquis) and rivaroxaban (Xarelto)  Intracranial or intraspinal surgery in the last 3 months Intracranial neoplasms or arteriovenous malformations also increase the risk of bleeding Current intracranial or subarachnoid hemorrhage History of intracranial hemorrhage from thrombolytic therapy also contraindicates tPA/TNK Recent (within 21 days) or active gastrointestinal bleed Hypertension BP >185 systolic or >110 diastolic Administer labetalol before thrombolytics to lower blood pressure Timing of symptoms Onset > 4.5 hours contraindicates tPA Platelet count < 100,000 BGL < 50 Potential alternative explanation for stroke-like symptoms obviating need for thrombolytics References 1. Fugate JE, Rabinstein AA. Absolute and Relative Contraindications to IV rt-PA for Acute Ischemic Stroke. The Neurohospitalist. 2015;5(3):110-121. doi:10.1177/1941874415578532 2. Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, et al. Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: 2019 Update to the 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke a Guideline for Healthcare Professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Vol 50.; 2019. doi:10.1161/STR.0000000000000211 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Jorge Chalit
03:51 4/15/24
Episode 898: Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy
Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as "broken heart syndrome,” is a temporary heart condition that can mimic the symptoms of a heart attack, including troponin elevations and mimic STEMI on ECG. The exact cause is not fully understood, but it is often triggered by severe emotional or physical stress. The stress can lead to a surge of catecholamines which affects the heart (multivessel spasm/paralysed myocardium). The name "Takotsubo" comes from the Japanese term for a type of octopus trap, as the left ventricle takes on a distinctive shape resembling this trap during systole. The LV is dilated and part of the wall becomes akenetic. These changes can be seen on ultrasound. The population most at risk for Takotsubo are post-menopausal women. Coronary angiography is one of the only ways to differentiate Takotsubo from other acute coronary syndromes. Most people with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy recover fully. References Amin, H. Z., Amin, L. Z., & Pradipta, A. (2020). Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: A Brief Review. Journal of medicine and life, 13(1), 3–7. https://doi.org/10.25122/jml-2018-0067 Bossone, E., Savarese, G., Ferrara, F., Citro, R., Mosca, S., Musella, F., Limongelli, G., Manfredini, R., Cittadini, A., & Perrone Filardi, P. (2013). Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: overview. Heart failure clinics, 9(2), 249–x. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hfc.2012.12.015 Dawson D. K. (2018). Acute stress-induced (takotsubo) cardiomyopathy. Heart (British Cardiac Society), 104(2), 96–102. https://doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2017-311579 Kida, K., Akashi, Y. J., Fazio, G., & Novo, S. (2010). Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Current pharmaceutical design, 16(26), 2910–2917. https://doi.org/10.2174/138161210793176509 Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII
03:44 4/10/24
Episode 897: Adrenal Crisis
Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Primary adrenal insufficiency (most common risk factor for adrenal crises) An autoimmune condition commonly known as Addison's Disease Defects in the cells of the adrenal glomerulosa and fasciculata result in deficient glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids Mineralocorticoid deficiency leads to hyponatremia and hypovolemia Lack of aldosterone downregulates Endothelial Sodium Channels (ENaCs) at the renal tubules Water follows sodium and generates a hypovolemic state Glucocorticoid deficiency contributes further to hypotension and hyponatremia Decreased vascular responsiveness to angiotensin II Increased secretion of vasopressin (ADH) from the posterior pituitary An adrenal crisis is defined as a sudden worsening of adrenal insufficiency Presents with non-specific symptoms including nausea, vomiting, fatigue, confusion, and fevers Fevers may be the result of underlying infection Work-up in the ED includes labs looking for infection and adding cortisol + ACTH levels Emergent treatment is required 100 mg hydrocortisone bolus followed by 50 mg every 6 hours Immediate IV fluid repletion with 1L normal saline The most common cause of an adrenal crisis is an acute infection in patients with baseline adrenal insufficiency Often due to a gastrointestinal infection References 1. Bancos I, Hahner S, Tomlinson J, Arlt W. Diagnosis and management of adrenal insufficiency. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2015;3(3):216-226. doi:10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70142-1 2. Bornstein SR, Allolio B, Arlt W, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Adrenal Insufficiency: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;101(2):364-389. doi:10.1210/jc.2015-1710 3. Cronin CC, Callaghan N, Kearney PJ, Murnaghan DJ, Shanahan F. Addison disease in patients treated with glucocorticoid therapy. Arch Intern Med. 1997;157(4):456-458. 4. Feldman RD, Gros R. Vascular effects of aldosterone: sorting out the receptors and the ligands. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2013;40(12):916-921. doi:10.1111/1440-1681.12157 5. Hahner S, Loeffler M, Bleicken B, et al. Epidemiology of adrenal crisis in chronic adrenal insufficiency: the need for new prevention strategies. Eur J Endocrinol. 2010;162(3):597-602. doi:10.1530/EJE-09-0884  Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit  
04:33 4/1/24
Podcast 896: Cancer-Related Emergencies
Contributor: Travis Barlock, MD Educational Pearls: Cancer-related emergencies can be sorted into a few buckets: Infection Cancer itself and the treatments (chemotherapy/radiation) can be immunosuppressive. Look out for conditions such as sepsis and neutropenic fever. Obstruction Cancer causes a hypercoagulable state. Look out for blood clots which can cause emergencies such as a pulmonary embolism, stroke, superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome, and cardiac tamponade. Metabolic Cancer can affect the metabolic system in a variety of ways. For example, certain cancers like bone cancers can stimulate the bones to release large amounts of calcium leading to hypercalcemia. Tumor lysis syndrome is another consideration in which either spontaneously or due to treatment, tumor cells will release large amounts of electrolytes into the bloodstream causing hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. Medication side effect Immunomodulators can have strange side effects. A common one to know is Keytruda (pembrolizumab), which can cause inflammation in any organ. So if you have a cancer patient on immunomodulators with any inflammatory changes (cystitis, colitis, pneumonitis, etc), talk to oncology about whether steroids are indicated. Chemotherapy can cause tumor lysis syndrome (see above), and multiple chemotherapeutics are known to cause heart failure (doxorubicin, trastuzumab), kidney failure (cisplatin), and pulmonary toxicity (bleomycin). References Campello, E., Ilich, A., Simioni, P., & Key, N. S. (2019). The relationship between pancreatic cancer and hypercoagulability: a comprehensive review on epidemiological and biological issues. British journal of cancer, 121(5), 359–371. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0510-x Gyamfi, J., Kim, J., & Choi, J. (2022). Cancer as a Metabolic Disorder. International journal of molecular sciences, 23(3), 1155. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031155 Kwok, G., Yau, T. C., Chiu, J. W., Tse, E., & Kwong, Y. L. (2016). Pembrolizumab (Keytruda). Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 12(11), 2777–2789. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2016.1199310 Wang, S. J., Dougan, S. K., & Dougan, M. (2023). Immune mechanisms of toxicity from checkpoint inhibitors. Trends in cancer, 9(7), 543–553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trecan.2023.04.002 Zimmer, A. J., & Freifeld, A. G. (2019). Optimal Management of Neutropenic Fever in Patients With Cancer. Journal of oncology practice, 15(1), 19–24. https://doi.org/10.1200/JOP.18.00269 Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
02:30 3/25/24
Episode 895: Indications for Exogenous Albumin
Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: There are three indications for IV albumin in the ED Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) Patients with SBP develop renal failure from volume depletion Albumin repletes volume stores and reduces renal impairment Albumin binds inflammatory cytokines and expands plasma volume Reduced all-cause mortality if IV albumin is given with antibiotics Hepatorenal syndrome Cirrhosis of the liver causes the release of endogenous vasodilators The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) fails systemically but maintains vasoconstriction at the kidneys, leading to decreased renal perfusion IV albumin expands plasma volume and prevents failure of the RAAS Large volume paracentesis Large-volume removal may lead to circulatory dysfunction IV albumin is associated with a reduced risk of paracentesis-associated circulatory dysfunction There are many other FDA-approved conditions for which to use exogenous albumin but the data are conflicted about the benefits on mortality References 1. Arroyo V, Fernandez J. Pathophysiological basis of albumin use in cirrhosis. Ann Hepatol. 2011;10(SUPPL. 1):S6-S14. doi:10.1016/s1665-2681(19)31600-x 2. Bai Z, Wang L, Wang R, et al. Use of human albumin infusion in cirrhotic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hepatol Int. 2022;16(6):1468-1483. doi:10.1007/s12072-022-10374-z 3. Batool S, Waheed MD, Vuthaluru K, et al. Efficacy of Intravenous Albumin for Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Infection Among Patients With Cirrhosis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Control Trials. Cureus. 2022;14(12). doi:10.7759/cureus.33124 4. Kwok CS, Krupa L, Mahtani A, et al. Albumin reduces paracentesis-induced circulatory dysfunction and reduces death and renal impairment among patients with cirrhosis and infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013. doi:10.1155/2013/295153 5. Sort P, Navasa M, Arroyo V, et al. Effect of Intravenous Albumin on Renal Impairment and Mortality in Patients with Cirrhosis and Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis. N Engl J Med. 1999;341(6):403-409. Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit  
02:28 3/18/24
Episode 894: DKA and HHS
Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What are DKA and HHS? DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) and HHS (Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State) are both acute hyperglycemic states. DKA More common in type 1 diabetes. Triggered by decreased circulating insulin. The body needs energy but cannot use glucose because it can’t get it into the cells. This leads to increased metabolism of free fatty acids and the increased production of ketones. The buildup of ketones causes acidosis. The kidneys attempt to compensate for the acidosis by increasing diuresis. These patients present as dry and altered, with sweet-smelling breath and Kussmaul (fast and deep) respirations. HSS More common in type 2 diabetes. In this condition there is still enough circulating insulin to avoid the breakdown of fats for energy but not enough insulin to prevent hyperglycemia. Serum glucose levels are very high – around 600 to 1200 mg/dl. Also presents similarly to DKA with the patient being dry and altered. Important labs to monitor Serum glucose Potassium Phosphorus Magnesium Anion gap (Na - Cl - HCO3) Renal function (Creatinine and BUN) ABG/VBG for pH Urinalysis and urine ketones by dipstick Treatment Identify the cause, i.e. Has the patient stopped taking their insulin? Aggressive hydration with isotonic fluids. Normal Saline (NS) vs Lactated Ringers (LR)? LR might resolve the DKA/HHS faster with less risk of hypernatremia. Should you bolus with insulin? No, just start a drip. 0.1-0.14 units per kg of insulin. Make sure you have your potassium back before starting insulin as the insulin can shift the potassium into the cells and lead to dangerous hypokalemia. Should you treat hyponatremia? Make sure to correct for hyperglycemia before treating. This artificially depresses the sodium. Should you give bicarb? Replace if the pH < 6.9. Otherwise, it won’t do anything to help. Don’t intubate, if the patient is breathing fast it is because they are compensating for their acidosis. References Andrade-Castellanos, C. A., Colunga-Lozano, L. E., Delgado-Figueroa, N., & Gonzalez-Padilla, D. A. (2016). Subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analogues for diabetic ketoacidosis. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2016(1), CD011281. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011281.pub2 Chaithongdi, N., Subauste, J. S., Koch, C. A., & Geraci, S. A. (2011). Diagnosis and management of hyperglycemic emergencies. Hormones (Athens, Greece), 10(4), 250–260. https://doi.org/10.14310/horm.2002.1316 Dhatariya, K. K., Glaser, N. S., Codner, E., & Umpierrez, G. E. (2020). Diabetic ketoacidosis. Nature reviews. Disease primers, 6(1), 40. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-020-0165-1 Duhon, B., Attridge, R. L., Franco-Martinez, A. C., Maxwell, P. R., & Hughes, D. W. (2013). Intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy in severely acidotic diabetic ketoacidosis. The Annals of pharmacotherapy, 47(7-8), 970–975. https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.1S014 Modi, A., Agrawal, A., & Morgan, F. (2017). Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Review. Current diabetes reviews, 13(3), 315–321. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573399812666160421121307 Self, W. H., Evans, C. S., Jenkins, C. A., Brown, R. M., Casey, J. D., Collins, S. P., Coston, T. D., Felbinger, M., Flemmons, L. N., Hellervik, S. M., Lindsell, C. J., Liu, D., McCoin, N. S., Niswender, K. D., Slovis, C. M., Stollings, J. L., Wang, L., Rice, T. W., Semler, M. W., & Pragmatic Critical Care Research Group (2020). Clinical Effects of Balanced Crystalloids vs Saline in Adults With Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Subgroup Analysis of Cluster Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA network open, 3(11), e2024596. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.24596 Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
07:45 3/11/24
Episode 893: Home Treatments for Button Battery Ingestion
Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Button batteries cause alkaline corrosion and erosion of the esophagus when swallowed Children swallow button batteries, which create a medical emergency as they can perforate the esophagus A recent study compared various home remedies as first-aid therapy for button battery ingestion Honey, jam, normal saline, Coca-Cola, orange juice, milk, and yogurt The study used a porcine esophageal model to assess resistance to alkalinization with the different home remedies Honey and jam demonstrated a significantly lower esophageal tissue pH compared with normal saline Histologic changes in the tissue samples appeared 60 minutes later with honey and jam compared with normal saline These treatments do not preclude medical intervention and battery removal References 1. Chiew AL, Lin CS, Nguyen DT, Sinclair FAW, Chan BS, Solinas A. Home Therapies to Neutralize Button Battery Injury in a Porcine Esophageal Model. Ann Emerg Med. 2023:1-9. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2023.08.018 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit  
02:34 3/4/24
Episode 892: Tourniquets
Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: What can you do to control bleeding in a penetrating wound? Apply direct pinpoint pressure on the wound as well as proximal to the wound. Build a compression dressing. How do you build a compression dressing? Think about building an upside-down pyramid with the gauze. Consider coagulation agents such as an absorbent gelatin sponge material, microporous polysaccharide hemispheres, oxidized cellulose, fibrin sealants, topical thrombin, or tranexamic acid. What are the indications to use a tourniquet? The Stop The Bleed campaign recommends looking for the following features of “life-threatening” bleeding. Pulsatile bleeding. Blood is pooling on the ground. The overlying clothes are soaked. Bandages are ineffective. Partial or full amputation. And if the patient is in shock. How do you put on a tourniquet? If using a Combat Application Tourniquet (C-A-T) tourniquet, apply it proximal to the wound, then rotate the plastic rod until the bleeding stops. Then secure the plastic rod with a clip and make sure the Velcro is in place. Mark the time - generally, there is a spot on the tourniquet to write. Have a plan for the next steps. Does the patient need emergent surgery? Do they need to be transfered? How long can you leave a tourniquet on? Less than 90 minutes. What are the risks? Nerve injury. Ischemia. References Latina R, Iacorossi L, Fauci AJ, Biffi A, Castellini G, Coclite D, D'Angelo D, Gianola S, Mari V, Napoletano A, Porcu G, Ruggeri M, Iannone P, Chiara O, On Behalf Of Inih-Major Trauma. Effectiveness of Pre-Hospital Tourniquet in Emergency Patients with Major Trauma and Uncontrolled Haemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Dec 6;18(23):12861. doi: 10.3390/ijerph182312861. PMID: 34886586; PMCID: PMC8657739. Martinson J, Park H, Butler FK Jr, Hammesfahr R, DuBose JJ, Scalea TM. Tourniquets USA: A Review of the Current Literature for Commercially Available Alternative Tourniquets for Use in the Prehospital Civilian Environment. J Spec Oper Med. 2020 Summer;20(2):116-122. doi: 10.55460/CT9D-TMZE. PMID: 32573747. Resources poster booklet. (n.d.). Stop the Bleed. https://www.stopthebleed.org/resources-poster-booklet/ Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
05:07 2/27/24
Episode 891: Hypothermia
Contributor: Taylor Lynch MD Educational Pearls Hypothermia is defined as a core body temperature less than 35 degrees Celsius or less than 95 degrees Fahrenheit  Mild Hypothermia: 32-35 degrees Celsius Presentation: alert, shivering, tachycardic, and cold diuresis Management: Passive rewarming i.e. remove wet clothing and cover the patient with blankets or other insulation Moderate Hypothermia: 28-32 degrees Celsius Presentation: Drowsiness, lack of shivering, bradycardia, hypotension Management: Active external rewarming Severe Hypothermia: 24-28 degrees Celsius Presentation: Heart block, cardiogenic shock, no shivering Management: Active external and internal rewarming Less than 24 degrees Celsius Presentation: Pulseless, ventricular arrhythmia Active External Rewarming Warm fluids are insufficient for warming due to a minimal temperature difference (warmed fluids are maintained at 40 degrees vs. a patient at 30 degrees is not a large enough thermodynamic difference) External: Bear hugger, warm blankets Active Internal Rewarming Thoracic lavage (preferably on the patient’s right side) Place 2 chest tubes (anteriorly and posteriorly); infuse warm IVF anteriorly and hook up the posterior tube to a Pleur-evac Warms the patient 3-6 Celsius per hour Bladder lavage Continuous bladder irrigation with 3-way foley or 300 cc warm fluid Less effective than thoracic lavage due to less surface area Pulseless patients ACLS does not work until patients are rewarmed to 30 degrees High-quality CPR until 30 degrees (longest CPR in a hypothermic patient was 6 hours and 30 minutes) Give epinephrine once you reach 35 degrees, spaced out every 6 minutes ECMO is the best way to warm these patients up (10 degrees per hour) Pronouncing death must occur at 32 degrees or must have potassium > 12 References 1. 2005 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care - Part 1: Introduction. Circulation. 2005;112(24 SUPPL.). doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.166550 2. Brown DJA, Burgger H, Boyd J, Paal P. Accidental Hypothermia. N Engl J Med. 2012;367:1930-1938. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5543.51-c 3. Dow J, Giesbrecht GG, Danzl DF, et al. Wilderness Medical Society Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Out-of-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Accidental Hypothermia: 2019 Update. Wilderness Environ Med. 2019;30(4S):S47-S69. doi:10.1016/j.wem.2019.10.002 4. Kjærgaard B, Bach P. Warming of patients with accidental hypothermia using warm water pleural lavage. Resuscitation. 2006;68(2):203-207. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2005.06.019 5. Lott C, Truhlář A, Alfonzo A, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: Cardiac arrest in special circumstances. Resuscitation. 2021;161:152-219. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.02.011 6. Plaisier BR. Thoracic lavage in accidental hypothermia with cardiac arrest - Report of a case and review of the literature. Resuscitation. 2005;66(1):99-104. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2004.12.024 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
04:55 2/19/24
Podcast 890: Outdoor Cold Air for Croup
Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls: Croup is a respiratory condition typically caused by a viral infection (e.g., parainfluenza). The disease is characterized by inflammation of the larynx and trachea, which often leads to a distinctive barking cough. A common treatment for croup is the powerful steroid dexamethasone, but it can take up to 30 minutes to start working. A folk remedy for croup is to take the afflicted child outside in the cold to help them breathe better, but does it really work? A 2023 study in Switzerland, published in the Journal of Pediatrics, investigated whether a 30-minute exposure to outdoor cold air could improve mild to moderate croup symptoms before the onset of steroid effects. The randomized controlled trial included children aged 3 months to 10 years with croup. After receiving a single-dose oral dexamethasone, participants were exposed to either outdoor cold air or indoor room air. The primary outcome was a decrease in the Westley Croup Score (WCS) by at least 2 points at 30 minutes. The results indicated that exposure to outdoor cold air, in addition to dexamethasone, significantly reduced symptoms in children with croup, especially in those with moderate cases. References Siebert JN, Salomon C, Taddeo I, Gervaix A, Combescure C, Lacroix L. Outdoor Cold Air Versus Room Temperature Exposure for Croup Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatrics. 2023 Sep 1;152(3):e2023061365. doi: 10.1542/peds.2023-061365. PMID: 37525974. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson, MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
04:06 2/14/24
Podcast 889: Blood Pressure Cuff Size
Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Does the size of a blood pressure (BP) cuff matter? A recent randomized crossover trial revealed that, indeed, cuff size can affect blood pressure readings Design 195 adults with varying mid-upper arm circumferences were randomized to the order of BP cuff application: Appropriate Too small Too large Individuals had their mid-upper arm circumference measured to determine the appropriate cuff size Participants underwent 4 sets of triplicate blood pressure measurements, the last of which was always with the appropriately sized cuff Results In individuals requiring a small cuff, the use of a regular cuff resulted in blood pressure readings 3.6 mm Hg lower than with the small cuff In individuals requiring large cuffs, the use of a regular cuff resulted in pressures 4.8 mm Hg higher than with the large cuffs In individuals requiring extra-large cuffs, the use of a regular cuff resulted in pressures 19.5 mm Hg higher than with extra-large cuffs Conclusion Miscuffing results in significantly inaccurate blood pressure measurements It is important to emphasize individualized BP cuff selection References 1. Ishigami J, Charleston J, Miller ER, Matsushita K, Appel LJ, Brady TM. Effects of Cuff Size on the Accuracy of Blood Pressure Readings: The Cuff(SZ) Randomized Crossover Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2023;183(10):1061-1068. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2023.3264 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Jorge Chalit  
01:51 2/5/24
Podcast 888: Low GCS and Intubation
Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Is the adage, “GCS of 8, you’ve got to intubate” accurate? A recent study published in the November 2023 issue of JAMA attempted to answer this question. Design Multicenter, randomized trial, in France from 2021 to 2023. 225 patients experiencing comatose in the setting of acute poisoning were randomly assigned to either a conservative airway strategy of withholding intubation or “routine practice” of much more frequent intubation. The primary outcome was a composite endpoint including in-hospital death, length of intensive care unit stay, and length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes included adverse events from intubation and pneumonia within 48 hours. Results Results showed that in the intervention group (with intubation withholding), only 16% of patients were intubated, compared to 58% in the control group. No in-hospital deaths occurred in either group. The intervention group demonstrated a significant clinical benefit for the primary endpoint, with a win ratio of 1.85 (95% CI, 1.33 to 2.58). The conservative airway management strategy also saw a statistically significant decrease in adverse events from intubation and pneumonia. Conclusion Among comatose patients with suspected acute poisoning, a conservative strategy of withholding intubation was associated with a greater clinical benefit. This suggests that a judicious approach to intubation is appropriate in many other settings and clinicians should rely on more than the GCS to make this decision. References Freund Y, Viglino D, Cachanado M, Cassard C, Montassier E, Douay B, Guenezan J, Le Borgne P, Yordanov Y, Severin A, Roussel M, Daniel M, Marteau A, Peschanski N, Teissandier D, Macrez R, Morere J, Chouihed T, Roux D, Adnet F, Bloom B, Chauvin A, Simon T. Effect of Noninvasive Airway Management of Comatose Patients With Acute Poisoning: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2023 Dec 19;330(23):2267-2274. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.24391. PMID: 38019968; PMCID: PMC10687712. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
02:41 1/29/24
Podcast 887: Family Presence in Cardiac Resuscitation
Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: A 2013 study randomized families of those in cardiac arrest into two groups: Actively offered patients’ families the opportunity to observe CPR Follow standard practice regarding family presence (control group) Of the 266 relatives that received offers to observe CPR, 211 (79%) accepted vs. 43% in the control group observed CPR The study assessed a primary end-point of PTSD-related symptoms 90 days after the event Secondary end-points included depression, anxiety, medicolegal claims, medical efforts at resuscitation, and the well-being of the healthcare team The frequency of PTSD-related symptoms was significantly higher in the control group Lower rates of anxiety and depression for the families who witnessed CPR There were no effects on resuscitation efforts, patient survival, medicolegal claims, or stress on the healthcare team If families choose to witness CPR, it’s beneficial to have someone with the family to explain the process References 1. Jabre P, Belpomme V, Azoulay E, et al. Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(11):1008-1018. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1203366 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Jorge Chalit  
02:46 1/22/24
Podcast 886: Cough in Kids
Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal, MD Educational Pearls: Croup Caused by: Parainfluenza, Adenovirus, RSV, Enterovirus (big right now) Age range: 6 months to 3 years Symptoms: Barky cough Inspiratory stridor (Severe = stidor at rest) Use the Westley Croup Score to gauge the severity Treatment: High flow, humidified, cool oxygen Dexamethasone 0.6 mg/kg oral, max 16mg Severe: Racemic Epinephrine 0.5 mL/kg Consider heliox, a mixture of helium and oxygen Very severe: be ready to intubate Bronchiolitis Caused by: RSV, Rhinovirus Symptoms are driven by secretions Symptoms: Cough Wheezing Dehydration (often the symptom that makes them look the worst) Age range: 2 to 6 months Treatment: Suctioning Oxygen IV fluids Nebulized hypertonic saline DuoNebs? No. Asthma Caused by: Environmental factors Viral illness with a predisposition Treatment: Beta agonists Steroids Ipratropium Magnesium (relaxes smooth muscle) References Dalziel SR, Haskell L, O'Brien S, Borland ML, Plint AC, Babl FE, Oakley E. Bronchiolitis. Lancet. 2022 Jul 30;400(10349):392-406. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01016-9. Epub 2022 Jul 1. PMID: 35785792. Hoch HE, Houin PR, Stillwell PC. Asthma in Children: A Brief Review for Primary Care Providers. Pediatr Ann. 2019 Mar 1;48(3):e103-e109. doi: 10.3928/19382359-20190219-01. PMID: 30874817. Midulla F, Petrarca L, Frassanito A, Di Mattia G, Zicari AM, Nenna R. Bronchiolitis clinics and medical treatment. Minerva Pediatr. 2018 Dec;70(6):600-611. doi: 10.23736/S0026-4946.18.05334-3. Epub 2018 Oct 18. PMID: 30334624. Smith DK, McDermott AJ, Sullivan JF. Croup: Diagnosis and Management. Am Fam Physician. 2018 May 1;97(9):575-580. PMID: 29763253. Westley CR, Cotton EK, Brooks JG. Nebulized racemic epinephrine by IPPB for the treatment of croup: a double-blind study. Am J Dis Child. 1978 May;132(5):484-7. doi: 10.1001/archpedi.1978.02120300044008. PMID: 347921. https://www.mdcalc.com/calc/677/westley-croup-score Summarized by Jeffrey Olson | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
06:42 1/15/24
Podcast 885: Penetrating Neck Injuries
Contributor: Ricky Dhaliwal MD Educational Pearls: Three zones of the neck with different structures and risks for injuries: Zone 1 is the most caudal region from the clavicle to the cricoid cartilage Zone 2 is from the cricoid cartilage to the angle of the mandible Zone 3 is superior to the angle of the mandible Zone 1 contains the thoracic outlet vasculature (subclavian arteries and veins, internal jugular veins), carotid arteries, vertebral artery, apices of the lungs, trachea, esophagus, spinal cord, thoracic duct, thyroid gland, jugular veins, and the vagus nerve.  Zone 2 contains the common carotid arteries, internal and external branches of carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, jugular veins, trachea, esophagus, larynx, pharynx, spinal cord, and vagus and recurrent laryngeal nerves Lower risk than Zone 1 or Zone 3 Zone 3 contains the distal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, jugular veins, pharynx, spinal cord, cranial nerves IX, X, XI, XII, the sympathetic chain, and the salivary and parotid glands Hard signs that indicate direct transfer to OR: Airway compromise  Active, brisk bleeding Pulsatile hematomas Hematemesis Massive subcutaneous emphysema  Soft signs that may obtain imaging to determine further interventions: Hemoptysis Oropharyngeal bleeding Dysphagia Dysphonia Expanding hematomas Soft sign management includes ABCs, type & screen, and airway interventions followed by imaging of the head & neck area Patients with dysphonia or dysphagia with subsequent negative CTAs may get further work-up via swallow studies References Asensio JA, Chahwan S, Forno W, et al. Penetrating esophageal injuries: multicenter study of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma. 2001;50(2):289-296. doi:10.1097/00005373-200102000-00015 Azuaje RE, Jacobson LE, Glover J, et al. Reliability of physical examination as a predictor of vascular injury after penetrating neck trauma. Am Surg. 2003;69(9):804-807. Ibraheem K, Wong S, Smith A, et al. Computed tomography angiography in the "no-zone" approach era for penetrating neck trauma: A systematic review. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2020;89(6):1233-1238. doi:10.1097/TA.0000000000002919 Nowicki JL, Stew B, Ooi E. Penetrating neck injuries: A guide to evaluation and managementx. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2018;100(1):6-11. doi:10.1308/rcsann.2017.0191 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
03:59 1/10/24
Laboring Under Pressure Episode 2: Postpartum Hemorrhage with Dr. Kiersten Williams
Contributor: Kiersten Williams MD, Travis Barlock MD, Jeffrey Olson MS2 Summary: In this episode, Dr. Travis Barlock and Jeffrey Olson meet in the studio to discuss a clip from Dr. Williams’ talk at the “Laboring Under Pressure, Managing Obstetric Emergencies in a Global Setting” event from May 2023. This event was hosted at the University of Denver and was organized with the help of Joe Parker as a fundraiser for the organization Health Outreach Latin America (HOLA). Dr. Kiersten Williams completed her OBGYN residency at Bay State Medical Center and practices as an Obstetric Hospitalist at Presbyterian/St. Luke’s Medical Center in Denver, Colorado. During her talk, Dr. Williams walks the audience through the common causes and treatments for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH). Some important take-away points from this talk are: The most common causes of PPH can be remembered by the 4 T’s. Tone (atony), Trauma, Tissue (retained placenta), and Thrombin (coagulopathies). AV malformations of the uterus are probably underdiagnosed. Quantitative blood loss is much more accurate than estimated blood loss (EBL). The ideal fibrinogen for an obstetric patient about to deliver is above 400 mg/dl - under 200 is certain to cause bleeding. Do not deliver oxytocin via IV push dose, it can cause significant hypotension. Tranexamic Acid is available in both IV and PO and can be administered in the field. The dose is 1 gram and can be run over 10 minutes if administered via IV. It is best if used within 3 hours of delivery. When performing a uterine massage, place one hand inside the vagina and one hand on the lower abdomen. Then rub the lower abdomen like mad. A new option for treating PPH is called the JADA System which is slimmer than a Bakri  Balloon and uses vacuum suction to help the uterus clamp down.* Another option for a small uterus is to insert a 60 cc Foley catheter. In an operating room, a B-Lynch suture can be put in place, uterine artery ligation can be performed, and as a last resort, a hysterectomy can be done. *EMM is not sponsored by JADA system or the Bakri balloon. References Andrikopoulou M, D'Alton ME. Postpartum hemorrhage: early identification challenges. Semin Perinatol. 2019 Feb;43(1):11-17. doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2018.11.003. Epub 2018 Nov 14. PMID: 30503400. Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics. Practice Bulletin No. 183: Postpartum Hemorrhage. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Oct;130(4):e168-e186. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000002351. PMID: 28937571. Federspiel JJ, Eke AC, Eppes CS. Postpartum hemorrhage protocols and benchmarks: improving care through standardization. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2023 Feb;5(2S):100740. doi: 10.1016/j.ajogmf.2022.100740. Epub 2022 Sep 2. PMID: 36058518; PMCID: PMC9941009. Health Outreach for Latin America Foundation - HOLA Foundation. (n.d.). http://www.hola-foundation.org/ Kumaraswami S, Butwick A. Latest advances in postpartum hemorrhage management. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2022 May;36(1):123-134. doi: 10.1016/j.bpa.2022.02.004. Epub 2022 Feb 24. PMID: 35659949. Pacheco LD, Saade GR, Hankins GDV. Medical management of postpartum hemorrhage: An update. Semin Perinatol. 2019 Feb;43(1):22-26. doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2018.11.005. Epub 2018 Nov 14. PMID: 30503399. Produced by Jeffrey Olson, MS2 | Edited by Jeffrey Olson and Jorge Chalit, OMSII
25:23 1/8/24
Podcast 884: Nerve Blocks
Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: What is a nerve block? A nerve block is the medical procedure of injecting anesthetic into the area around a nerve to block pain signals.  They are typically done with ultrasound guidance. Are nerve blocks effective? Most of the information we have about nerve blocks is extrapolated from fascia iliaca blocks. This nerve block targets the fascia iliaca compartment, which contains the femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, and obturator nerves. These blocks are commonly done for hip fractures to help stabilize the patient while awaiting surgical repair. The data for these types of injections is strong. They decrease pain, they decrease total morphine equivalents needed while a patient is in the hospital, they help mobilize patients earlier and start physical therapy earlier, and they help patients leave the hospital about a day earlier. What is an example of an agent that can be used? Bupivacaine. A long acting amide-type local anesthetic. It works best when paired with epinephrine which causes local vasoconstriction and allows the bupivaciaine to bathe the nerve for longer. It gives 5-15 hours of anesthesia (complete sensation loss), and up to 30 hours of analgesia (pain loss). What’s an example of another block that can be done? An Erector Spinae Plane (ESP) block is performed in the paraspinal fascial plane in the back. This can be used for pain around the ribs and before a variety of medical procedures including a Nuss procedure, thoracotomies, percutaneous nephrolithotomies, ventral hernia repairs, and even lumbar fusions. What is one potential complication of a nerve block? Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity (LAST). There are three ways this can happen: 1) Using too much total anesthetic (Maximum dose of bupivacaine is 2.5 mg/kg). 2) Too much anesthetic is injected into a confined space which then gets absorbed into the venous system. 3) Injecting directly into the vasculature by mistake. What are the signs that this complication has occurred? Perioral tingling Stupor Coma Seizures What can that cause? Cardiovascular collapse How is that treated? Intralipid AKA Soybean Oil, or “lipid emulsion” should be given as a bolus followed by a drip. These patients need to be admitted. Bolus 1.5 ml/kg (lean body mass) intravenously over 1 min (max ~100 ml). Continuous infusion at 0.25 mL/kg/min. Max dosing in the first 30 minutes is around 100 ml/kg. Fun fact: Patients being treated for LAST with intralipid cannot undergo general anesthesia because the intralipid will impact the anesthesia drugs. References Long B, Chavez S, Gottlieb M, Montrief T, Brady WJ. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity: A narrative review for emergency clinicians. Am J Emerg Med. 2022 Sep;59:42-48. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2022.06.017. Epub 2022 Jun 13. PMID: 35777259. Carvalho Júnior LH, Temponi EF, Paganini VO, Costa LP, Soares LF, Gonçalves MB. Reducing the length of hospital stay after total knee arthroplasty: influence of femoral and sciatic nerve block. Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992). 2015 Jan-Feb;61(1):40-3. doi: 10.1590/1806-9282.61.01.040. Epub 2015 Jan 1. PMID: 25909207. Jain N, Kotulski C, Al-Hilli A, Yeung-Lai-Wah P, Pluta J, Heegeman D. Fascia Iliaca Block in Hip and Femur Fractures to Reduce Opioid Use. J Emerg Med. 2022 Jul;63(1):1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2022.04.018. Epub 2022 Aug 4. PMID: 35933265. Kot P, Rodriguez P, Granell M, Cano B, Rovira L, Morales J, Broseta A, Andrés J. The erector spinae plane block: a narrative review. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2019 Jun;72(3):209-220. doi: 10.4097/kja.d.19.00012. Epub 2019 Mar 19. PMID: 30886130; PMCID: PMC6547235. Lee SH, Sohn JT. Mechanisms underlying lipid emulsion resuscitation for drug toxicity: a narrative review. Korean J Anesthesiol. 2023 Jun;76(3):171-182. doi: 10.4097/kja.23031. Epub 2023 Jan 26. PMID: 36704816; PMCID: PMC10244607. Weinberg, Guy. LipidRescue™ Resuscitation. http://www.lipidrescue.org/ Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
06:57 1/1/24
Podcast 883: Migraine Treatment in Cardiovascular Disease
Contributor: Jorge Chalit, OMS II Educational Pearls: Migraine pathophysiology Primarily mediated through the trigeminovascular system Serotonin, dopamine, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) Trigeminovascular system is linked to the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, which relays pain to the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex One effective treatment for acute migraines is -triptan medications 5-HT1D/1B agonists such as sumatriptan Often combined with NSAIDs and dopamine antagonists (as antiemetics) in migraine cocktails Diphenhydramine (Benadryl) was shown to be ineffective in a randomized controlled trial comparing it with placebo and a dopamine antagonist antiemetic.  The -triptan medications carry significant risk for peripheral vasoconstriction and are therefore avoided in cardiovascular disease One serotonin agonist specifically approved for use in vascular disease Lasmiditan - 5-HT1F agonist Slightly different mechanism of action avoids peripheral vasoconstriction CGRP antagonists are also used in patients who are unresponsive to -triptans References 1. Friedman WB, Cabral L, Adewunmi V, et al. Diphenhydramine as adjuvant therapy for acute migraine. An ED-based randomized clinical trial. Ann Emerg Med. 2016;67(1):32-39.e3. doi:doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2015.07.495 2. Lasmiditan (Reyvow) and ubrogepant (Ubrelvy) for acute treatment of migraine. (2020). The Medical letter on drugs and therapeutics, 62(1593), 35–39. 3. Robbins MS. Diagnosis and Management of Headache: A Review. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2021;325(18):1874-1885. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.1640 4. Vanderpluym JH, Halker Singh RB, Urtecho M, et al. Acute Treatments for Episodic Migraine in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2021;325(23):2357-2369. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.7939 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
03:13 12/25/23
Podcast 882: Thrombolytics for Minor Strokes
Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: How is the severity of a stroke assessed? Strokes are assessed by the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), this scale has different tasks, such as asking the person to repeat words, move their arms, or follow simple instructions. The maximum score is 42 but any score over 21 is considered severe. What would qualify as a minor storke? NIH
02:20 12/20/23
Podcast 881: Pediatric Readmissions
Contributor: Nick Tsipis MD Educational Pearls: The review article assessed 16.3 million patients across six states to identify those at high-risk for critical revisit Criteria for critical revisit was ICU admission or death within three days of discharge from the ED Critical revisits are extremely rare  0.1% of patients have a critical revisit after discharge 0.00001% die after revisit Of the patients that do experience critical revisits, the two major risk factors are Asthma - relative risk 2.24 Chronic medical conditions - incidence rate ratio 11.03  Of the top ten diagnoses that lead to critical revisits, 5 are respiratory Others include cellulitis, seizures, gastrointestinal disease, appendectomy, and sickle cell crisis.  References 1. Cavallaro SC, Michelson KA, D’Ambrosi G, Monuteaux MC, Li J. Critical Revisits Among Children After Emergency Department Discharge. Ann Emerg Med. 2023;82(5):575-582. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2023.06.006 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
03:29 12/12/23
Podcast 880: OB Delivery in the ED
Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: Pearls about labor: Labor is split into 3 stages. Stage 1 starts when the first persistent contractions are felt and goes up until the cervix is fully dilated and the mother starts pushing. Stage 1 is split into two phases: the latent phase (cervix is dilated from 0-4 cm), and the active phase (cervix dilates from 4-10 cm). The latent phase can take between 6 and 12 hours with contractions happening every 5 to 15 minutes. The active phase usually lasts 4-8 hours with contractions occurring as close as every 3 minutes. Stage 2 is the birth itself, lasting between 20 minutes and 2 hours. Stage 3 is the delivery of the placenta and typically takes 30 minutes.  37 weeks gestational age is the cutoff for preterm. Placenta previa: Condition when the placenta overlies the cervix. Classically presents as painless vaginal bleeding in the 3rd trimester. If suspected placenta previa, avoid a speculum exam. Placenta previa can be confirmed on ultrasound.  If the baby is crowning in the ER then the baby should be delivered in the ER. The ideal presentation on crowning is head first (Vertex), specifically ‘left occiput anterior’. In this position, the baby is head first and the head is facing towards the gurney at a slight angle. If the baby is coming out in a breech position then the provider should “elevate the presenting part” by maintaining pressure on the baby as the mother is wheeled to the OR for an emergency C-section. If a vertex-presenting baby is being delivered vaginally, after the head has been delivered an event called ‘restitution’ must occur to align the baby’s shoulders properly. During this event, the baby goes from facing down towards the gurney to facing sideways. After restitution, the anterior shoulder should be delivered, followed by the posterior. After complete delivery, the cord should be clamped (after a 1-3 minute delay), with something sterile. Gentle downward traction on the cord helps to deliver the placenta. You can place pressure above the pubic bone to prevent the uterus from involuting during this process. This is not the same as a fundal massage which happens after the delivery of the placenta to help the uterus clamp down and prevent postpartum hemorrhage. References Hutchison J, Mahdy H, Hutchison J. Stages of Labor. 2023 Jan 30. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan–. PMID: 31335010. Lavery JP. Placenta previa. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Sep;33(3):414-21. doi: 10.1097/00003081-199009000-00005. PMID: 2225572. Qian Y, Ying X, Wang P, Lu Z, Hua Y. Early versus delayed umbilical cord clamping on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2019 Sep;300(3):531-543. doi: 10.1007/s00404-019-05215-8. Epub 2019 Jun 15. PMID: 31203386; PMCID: PMC6694086. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
08:06 12/4/23
Podcast 879: A Case of Pediatric Anaphylactic Shock
Contributor: Dr. Taylor Lynch Educational Pearls: Time of arrival until intubation was 26 minutes but nobody tried anterior neck access like a cricothyrotomy until his dad arrived Traditional ACLS protocol is not enough for anaphylactic respiratory arrest Circulating O2 from compressions alone is not enough to sustain the brain Patients need a definitive airway and endotracheal tube is the best method BVM ventilation is not enough to get patients the oxygen they need Time to anoxic brain injury during a respiratory arrest is 4 minutes Definition of anaphylactic shock: Acute laryngeal involvement with bronchospasms after known exposure to an allergen Do not need to have skin symptoms like the classic wheal and flare Must also have either hypotension (from vasodilation or end-organ hypoperfusion) or severe GI symptoms (crampy abdominal pain or repetitive vomiting) Treatment of anaphylactic shock: Push-dose IV epinephrine is better than IM epinephrine because IM epinephrine takes 4 minutes to circulate and get to the lungs Ketamine has broncho-dilating properties so it can be used as an induction agent for intubation Albuterol and ipratropium as continuous bronchodilators Magnesium and IV steroids AMAX4 acronym Adrenaline, Muscle relaxant, Airway, Xtra (bronchodilators, ventilation, vasopressors, and consideration of pneumothorax), 4 minutes to anoxic brain injury References Commins SP. Outpatient Emergencies: Anaphylaxis. Med Clin North Am. 2017;101(3):521-536. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2016.12.003 Ring J, Beyer K, Biedermann T, Bircher A, Duda D FJ et al. Guideline for acute therapy and management of anaphylaxis. S2 guideline of DGAKI, AeDA, GPA, DAAU, BVKJ, ÖGAI, SGAI, DGAI, DGP, DGPM, AGATE and DAAB. Allergo J Int. 2014;23(23):96-112. McKenzie B. AMAX4: Every Second Counts. Accessed Sunday, November 26, 2023. https://www.amax4.org/ Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
05:53 11/27/23
Podcast 878: Opioids for Low Back and Neck Pain
Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls: Should we use opioids to treat low back and neck pain? The OPAL Trial, published in The Lancet, in June 2023, attempted to answer this very question. Objective: Investigate the efficacy and safety of a short course of opioid analgesic (oxycodone-naloxone) for acute low back pain and neck pain. Trial Design: Triple-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial, conducted in Emergency and Primary Care in Sydney, Australia, involving adults with 12 weeks or less of low back or neck pain. Participants: 347 recruited adults (174 in the opioid group, 173 in the placebo group) with at least moderate pain severity. Intervention: Participants were assigned to receive either an opioid or a placebo for up to 6 weeks. Primary Outcome: Pain severity at 6 weeks measured with the pain severity subscale of the Brief Pain Inventory (10-point scale). Results: No significant difference in pain severity at 6 weeks between the opioid group (mean score 2.78) and placebo group (mean score 2.25). Adverse events were reported by 35% in the opioid group and 30% in the placebo group, with more opioid-related adverse events in the opioid group (e.g., constipation). Conclusion: Opioids should not be recommended for acute non-specific low back pain or neck pain, as there was no significant difference in pain severity compared with the placebo. The study calls for a change in the frequent use of opioids for these conditions. Pharmacy Pearl: Why was naloxone mixed with oxycodone? Naloxone is an opioid receptor antagonist, meaning it can block the effects of opioids. When combined with oxycodone, naloxone's presence discourages certain forms of opioid misuse. Additionally, naloxone can bind to opioid receptors in the gut and improve symptoms of Opioid Induced Constipation (OIC). This is the same idea behind Suboxone (buprenorphine/naloxone).   References Jones CMP, Day RO, Koes BW, Latimer J, Maher CG, McLachlan AJ, Billot L, Shan S, Lin CC; OPAL Investigators Coordinators. Opioid analgesia for acute low back pain and neck pain (the OPAL trial): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2023 Jul 22;402(10398):304-312. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)00404-X. Epub 2023 Jun 28. Erratum in: Lancet. 2023 Aug 19;402(10402):612. PMID: 37392748. Camilleri M, Lembo A, Katzka DA. Opioids in Gastroenterology: Treating Adverse Effects and Creating Therapeutic Benefits. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Sep;15(9):1338-1349. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.05.014. Epub 2017 May 19. PMID: 28529168; PMCID: PMC5565678. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
03:36 11/20/23
Podcast 877: Viral Respiratory Infections in Children
Contributor: Jared Scott MD Educational Pearls A recently published study assessed the burden of respiratory viruses in a longitudinal cohort of children from 0 to 2 years of age The children in the study received nasal swab PCR testing weekly to determine infectivity They were also monitored for symptoms via weekly text surveys The study differentiated between infection and illness by defining an acute respiratory illness (ARI) as fever ≥38°C or cough.  The median infectivity rate was 9.4 viral infections per child per year The median illness rate was 3.3 ARIs per child per year The most common etiological viruses isolated from the nasal samples were rhinovirus and enterovirus Most infections were asymptomatic or mild References Teoh, Z., Conrey, S., McNeal, M., Burrell, A., Burke, R. M., Mattison, C., McMorrow, M., Payne, D. C., Morrow, A. L., & Staat, M. A. (2023). Burden of Respiratory Viruses in Children Less Than 2 Years Old in a Community-based Longitudinal US Birth Cohort. Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 77(6), 901–909. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciad289 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
03:09 11/13/23
Podcast 876: Sedation Pearls
Contributor: Travis Barlock MD Educational Pearls: Common sedatives used in the Emergency Department and a few pearls for each. Propofol Type: Non-barbiturate sedative hypnotic agonizing GABA receptors. Benefit: Quick on and quick off (duration of action is approximately 2-7 minutes), helpful for suspected neurologic injury so the patient can wake up and be re-evaluated. Also has the benefit of reducing intracranial pressure (ICP). Downsides: Hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression. What should you do if a patient is getting hypotensive on propofol? Do not stop the propofol. Start pressors. May have to reduce the propofol dose if delay in pressors. Dexmedetomidine (Precedex) Type: Alpha 2 agonist - causes central sedation Uses: Patients are more alert and responsive and therefore can be on BiPAP instead of being intubated. Does not cause respiratory depression. Downsides: Hypotension and Bradycardia. Caution in using this for head injuries, its side effects can mask the Cushing reflex and make it more difficult to spot acute elevations in ICP and uncal herniation. Ketamine Type: NMDA antagonist and dissociative anesthetic, among other mechanisms. Benefits: Quick Onset (but slower than propofol). Does not cause hypotension, but can even increase HR and BP (Thought to potentially cause hypotension if patient is catecholamine-depleted (ie. sepsis, delayed trauma)). Dosing ketamine can be challenging. Typically low doses (0.1-0.3mg/kg (max ~30mg)) can give good pain relief. Higher doses (for intubation/procedural sedation) are generally thought to have a higher risk of dissociation. Downsides: Emergence reactions which include hallucinations, vivid dreams, and agitation. Increased secretions. Benzos Type: GABA agonists. Benefits: Seizure, alcohol withdrawal, agitation due to toxic overdoses.  Push doses are useful because doses can stack. Longer half-life than propofol.   Downsides: Respiratory depression. Longer half-life can make neuro assessments difficult to complete. Etomidate MOA: Displaces endogenous GABA inhibitors. Useful as a one-time dose for quick procedures (cardioversion, intubation). Often drug of choice for intubation since it is thought to have no hemodynamic effects.  Downsides; If used without paralytic - myoclonus. Though to have some adrenal suppression. Fentanyl Type: Opioid analgesic. Not traditional sedative. Benefits: There are many instances in emergency medicine in which sedation can be avoided by prioritizing proper analgesia. Fentanyl can even be used to maintain intubated patients without needing to keep them constantly sedated. Downsides: Respiratory depression. Patients may have tolerance. References Chawla N, Boateng A, Deshpande R. Procedural sedation in the ICU and emergency department. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2017 Aug;30(4):507-512. doi: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000487. PMID: 28562388. Keating GM. Dexmedetomidine: A Review of Its Use for Sedation in the Intensive Care Setting. Drugs. 2015 Jul;75(10):1119-30. doi: 10.1007/s40265-015-0419-5. PMID: 26063213. Lundström S, Twycross R, Mihalyo M, Wilcock A. Propofol. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010 Sep;40(3):466-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2010.07.001. PMID: 20816571. Matchett G, Gasanova I, Riccio CA, Nasir D, Sunna MC, Bravenec BJ, Azizad O, Farrell B, Minhajuddin A, Stewart JW, Liang LW, Moon TS, Fox PE, Ebeling CG, Smith MN, Trousdale D, Ogunnaike BO; EvK Clinical Trial Collaborators. Etomidate versus ketamine for emergency endotracheal intubation: a randomized clinical trial. Intensive Care Med. 2022 Jan;48(1):78-91. doi: 10.1007/s00134-021-06577-x. Epub 2021 Dec 14. PMID: 34904190. Mihaljević S, Pavlović M, Reiner K, Ćaćić M. Therapeutic Mechanisms of Ketamine. Psychiatr Danub. 2020 Autumn-Winter;32(3-4):325-333. doi: 10.24869/psyd.2020.325. PMID: 33370729. Nakauchi C, Miyata M, Kamino S, Funato Y, Manabe M, Kojima A, Kawai Y, Uchida H, Fujino M, Boda H. Dexmedetomidine versus fentanyl for sedation in extremely preterm infants. Pediatr Int. 2023 Jan-Dec;65(1):e15581. doi: 10.1111/ped.15581. PMID: 37428855. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
05:06 11/6/23
Podcast 875: A Pediatric Case of Myopericarditis
Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardial sac, which can arise from infectious or non-infectious etiologies Myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium, which may accompany pericarditis Pericarditis clinical findings include: Diffuse concave ST elevation, classic for acute pericarditis with myocardial involvement. More common in younger male patients Elevated high-sensitivity troponin - higher levels may occur in young healthy patients Ultrasound may show pericardial effusions POCUS may be helpful in assessing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) via E-point septal separation (EPSS) Elevation in EPSS correlates with decreased LVEF Treatments: Anti-inflammatories including NSAIDs and colchicine Monitor inflammation Repeat ultrasounds Risk factors in this patient’s case: mRNA COVID vaccine - the risk of myocarditis from vaccination is significantly lower than that from COVID-19 infection Preceding infection References 1. Gao J, Feng L, Li Y, et al. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Association Between SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination and Myocarditis or Pericarditis. Am J Prev Med. 2023;64(2):275-284. 2. Imazio M, Gaita F, LeWinter M. Evaluation and treatment of pericarditis: A systematic review. JAMA - J Am Med Assoc. 2015;314(14):1498-1506. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.12763 3. Mckaigney CJ, Krantz MJ, La Rocque CL, Hurst ND, Buchanan MS, Kendall JL. E-point septal separation: A bedside tool for emergency physician assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction. Am J Emerg Med. 2014;32(6):493-497. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2014.01.045 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
06:39 10/30/23
Episode 874: Bradyarrhythmias
Contributor: Dylan Luyten MD Educational Pearls: What is a Bradyarrhythmia? Also known as a bradyarrhythmia, it is an irregular heart rate that is also slow (below 60 beats per minute). What can cause it? Complete heart block AKA third-degree AV block; identified on ECG by a wide QRS, and complete dissociation between the atrial and ventricular rhythms with the ventricular being much slower. Treat with a pacemaker. Medication overdose, especially beta blockers. Many other drugs can slow the heart as well including: opioids, clonidine, digitalis, amiodarone, diltiazem, and verapamil to name a few. Electrolyte abnormalities, specifically hyperkalemia. Hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia can also cause bradyarrhythmias. Myocardial infarction. Either by damaging the AV node or the conduction system itself or by triggering a process called Reperfusion Bradycardia. Hypothermia. Bradycardia is generally a sign of severe or advanced hypothermia. References Jurkovicová O, Cagán S. Reperfúzne arytmie [Reperfusion arrhythmias]. Bratisl Lek Listy. 1998 Mar-Apr;99(3-4):162-71. Slovak. PMID: 9919746. Simmons T, Blazar E. Synergistic Bradycardia from Beta Blockers, Hyperkalemia, and Renal Failure. J Emerg Med. 2019 Aug;57(2):e41-e44. doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2019.03.039. Epub 2019 May 30. PMID: 31155316. Wung SF. Bradyarrhythmias: Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2016 Sep;28(3):297-308. doi: 10.1016/j.cnc.2016.04.003. Epub 2016 Jun 22. PMID: 27484658. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
02:40 10/23/23
Podcast 873: Intravesical Tranexamic Acid for Gross Hematuria
Contributor: Aaron Lessen MD Educational Pearls: Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a common medication to achieve hemostasis in a variety of conditions Patients visiting the ED for gross hematuria (between March 2022 and September 2022) were treated with intravesical TXA 1 g tranexamic acid in 100 mL NS via Foley catheter Clamped Foley for 15 minutes Subsequent continuous bladder irrigation, as is standard in most EDs Compared with a cohort of patients visiting the ED for a similar concern between March 2021 and September 2021, the TXA patients had: A shorter median length of stay in the ED (274 min vs. 411 mins, P < 0.001). A shorter median duration of Foley catheter placement (145 min vs. 308 mins, P < 0.001) Fewer revisits after ED discharge (2.3% vs. 12.3%, P = 0.031) References 1. Choi H, Kim DW, Jung E, et al. Impact of intravesical administration of tranexamic acid on gross hematuria in the emergency department: A before-and-after study. Am J Emerg Med. 2023;68:68-72. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2023.03.020 Summarized by Jorge Chalit, OMSII | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII
02:23 10/16/23
Podcast 872: Preseptal and Orbital Cellulitis
Contributor: Meghan Hurley MD Educational Pearls: What is Cellulitis? A common and potentially serious bacterial skin infection. Caused by various types of bacteria, with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species being the most common. What is Preseptal Cellulitis and why is it more serious than facial cellulitis? Preseptal Cellulitis, also known as Periorbital Cellulitis, is a bacterial infection of the soft tissues in the eyelid and the surrounding area. This requires prompt and aggressive treatment to avoid progression into Orbital Cellulitis. How is Preseptal Cellulitis treated? Oral antibiotics for five to seven days. In the setting of trauma (scratching bug bites) Clindamycin or TMP-SMX (for MRSA coverage) and Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid or Cefpodoxime or Cefdinir. If there is no trauma, monotherapy with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid is appropriate. Check immunization status against H.influenzae and adjust appropriately. What is Orbital Cellulitis, how is it diagnosed, and why is it more serious than Preseptal Cellulitis? Orbital cellulitis involves the tissues behind the eyeball and within the eye socket itself. Key features include: Eye pain. Proptosis (Bulging of the eye out of its normal position). Impaired eye movement. Blurred or double vision. This can lead to three very serious complications: Orbital Compartment Syndrome. This can push eye forward, stretch optic nerve, and threaten vision. Meningitis given that the meninges of the brain are continuous with optic nerve. Endophthalmitis, which is inflammation of the inner coats of the eye. This can also threaten vision. If suspected, get a CT of the orbits and/or an MRI to look for an abscess behind the eyes. How is Orbital Cellulitis treated? IV antibiotics. Cover for meningitis with Ceftriaxone and Vancomycin. Add Metronidazole until intracranial involvement has been ruled out. Drain the abscess surgically. Usually this is performed by an ophthalmologist or an otolaryngologist. Admit to the hospital. References Bae C, Bourget D. Periorbital Cellulitis. 2023 Jul 17. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan–. PMID: 29261970. Chaudhry IA, Shamsi FA, Elzaridi E, Al-Rashed W, Al-Amri A, Al-Anezi F, Arat YO, Holck DE. Outcome of treated orbital cellulitis in a tertiary eye care center in the middle East. Ophthalmology. 2007 Feb;114(2):345-54. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2006.07.059. PMID: 17270683. Seltz LB, Smith J, Durairaj VD, Enzenauer R, Todd J. Microbiology and antibiotic management of orbital cellulitis. Pediatrics. 2011 Mar;127(3):e566-72. doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-2117. Epub 2011 Feb 14. PMID: 21321025. Wong SJ, Levi J. Management of pediatric orbital cellulitis: A systematic review. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2018 Jul;110:123-129. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.05.006. Epub 2018 May 8. PMID: 29859573. Summarized by Jeffrey Olson MS2 | Edited by Meg Joyce & Jorge Chalit, OMSII  
04:40 10/9/23

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